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Images of God

Images of God are typically measured using a battery of questions inquiring about the traits that respondents attribute to God.  Typically these descriptions fall out along underlying dimensions, especially the following: level of engagement or distance from the world, wrath or anger, and love.  These dimensions, as well specific combinations of these dimensions, have been found to have a substantial relationship with political and moral ideology.

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Froese, Paul and Christopher Bader. 2007. “God in America: Why Theology is Not Simply the Concern of Philosophers.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 46:465-81.

Froese, Paul and Christopher Bader. 2010. America’s Four Gods: What We Say About God and What That Says About Us.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Several files in theARDA’s Data Archive have examples of this Measure.
GodLvDir – 2004 General Social Survey

DescGod1 – 2001 Religion and Public Life Survey

MothFath – 1992 New Evangelical Movement Congregations, Pastors Survey

MAPA: 1990 General Social Survey

ImagAJUD – 1984 Notre Dame Study of Catholic Parish Life: Parishioners Sample

Q22A – 2005 Baylor Religion Survey, 2005

GodPrnts – 1998 International Social Survey Program: Religion II

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Several files in theARDA's Data Archive have examples of this Measure.
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