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Spirituality

This refers to an orientation toward transcendent or supernatural realities outside any strict doctrinal framework.  This primarily includes beliefs and practices that are internal and privatized–highlighting a personal “quest.”  Although discernible from “religion” in the organizational sense, research indicates that religion and spirituality are not mutually exclusive.  Rather, most people who consider themselves spiritual also tend to consider themselves religious; however, there are a growing number of individuals in the Western world who consider themselves “spiritual, but not religious.”

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Citations:

Bellah, Robert N., Richard Madsen, William M. Sullivan, Ann Swidler, and Steven M. Tipton.  1985.  Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life.  Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Fuller, Robert C.  2001.  Spiritual, but Not Religious: Understanding Unchurched America.  New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Heelas, Paul, Linda Woodhead, Benjamin Steel, Bronislaw Szreszynski and Karin Tusting.  2005.  The Spiritual Revolution: Why Religion is Giving Way to Spirituality.  Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Houtman, Dick and Stef Aupers.  2007.  “The Spiritual Turn and the Decline of Tradition: The Spread of Post-Christian Spirituality in 14 Western Countries.”  Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 46(3)305-320.

Zinnbauer, Brian J., Kenneth I. Pargament, Brenda Cole, Mark S. Rye, Eric M. Butter, Timothy G. Belavich, Kathleen Hipp, Allie B. Scott and Jill L. Kadar.  1997.  “Religion and Spirituality: Unfuzzying the Fuzzy.”  Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 36(4):549-564.

The following are possible measures of Spirituality that can be created using data from theARDA.com
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This refers to an orientation toward transcendent or supernatural realities outside any strict doctrinal framework.  This primarily includes beliefs and practices that are internal and privatized--highlighting a personal "quest."  Although discernible from "religion" in the organizational sense, research indicates that religion and spirituality are not mutually exclusive.  Rather, most people who consider themselves spiritual also tend to consider themselves religious; however, there are a growing number of individuals in the Western world who consider themselves "spiritual, but not religious." View related items in the Measurement Wizard:
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A series of questions with multiple sub-questions asking for respondents' level of interaction with New Age materials and ideas.  These vary, reflecting the diffuse content of the subculture.  Bainbridge (2004) suggested that New Age, "paranormal" and UFO beliefs were all empirically distinguishable but related belief systems.  In addition to beliefs, there are measures of media consumption and experiences with regard to the New Age. View related items in the Measurement Wizard: View related items in Measurement Wizard Scales:
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