About The ARDA | Tools | FAQs | Contact Us
Fundamentalism

This phenomenon is marked by holding to the authority of Scripture, the veracity of supernatural miracles, exclusive salvation, and encouraging a separation from “the world” (Woodberry and Smith, 1998:28). The term fundamentalism is derived from reaction movements to the modernist and liberal strains of Protestantism that arose at the turn of the 20th century, but has since been applied to movements within different religious traditions such as Islam andHinduism (see Almond, Appleby and Scott 2003).

Christian fundamentalism tends to favor a premillenialist dispensationalism believing that the world will grow worse and worse, despite any human intervention, until Jesus Christ’s return to earth. Accordingly, fundamentalists believe in maintaining a strict separation from the world and rarely encourage a social gospel, which is usually attributed to more liberal Protestant groups.

Common ways of measuring fundamentalism is by using RELTRAD and accounting for a person’s religious tradition. Fundamentalists are most likely found in the Evangelical Protestant or Black Protestant traditions. Fundamentalists are also very likely to ascribe a literal and perfect view of the Bible. Due to the premillenialist views of fundamentalists researchers could use a belief in certain “End Times” prophecies to designate those in this strain of Christianity. A belief in Jesus and Jesus being the only way to salvation are also markers that can be used to measure fundamentalism.  This concept may also be measure by self-identification with the term fundamentalist.

View related items in the Measurement Wizard:

Citations:

Almond, Gabriel, R. Scott Appleby and Emmanuel Sivan.  2003.  Strong Religion: The Rise of Fundamentalisms around the World.  Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Bruce, Steve.  2008.  Fundamentalism, 2nd Edition.  Cambridge: Polity Press.

Hempel, Lynn M. and John P. Bartkowski. 2008. “Scripture, Sin and Salvation: Theological Conservatism Reconsidered.” Social Forces 86:1647-74.

Hood Jr., Ralph, Peter C. Hill and W. Paul Williamson.  2005.  The Psychology of Religious Fundamentalism.  New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Jelen, Ted G.  1991a.  The Political Mobilization of Religious Beliefs.  Westport, CT: Praeger.

Jelen, Ted G.  1991b.  “Politicized Group Identification: The Case of Fundamentalism.”  Western Political Quarterly 44(1):209-219.

Moaddel, Monsoor.  2005.  Islamic Modernism, Nationalism, and Fundamentalism: Episode and Discourse.  Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Smith, C., M. Emerson, S. Gallagher, P. Kennedy, and D. Sikkink. 1998. American Evangelicalism: Embattled and Thriving. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Woodberry and Smith. 1998. “Fundamentalism et al: Conservative Protestants in America.” Annual Review of Sociology 24:25-56.

The following are possible measures of Fundamentalism that can be created using data from theARDA.com
Contributors:
In 2000, Steensland and colleagues proposed a new method for classifying religious tradition which was based on both doctrine and historical changes in religious groups.  The schematic divides religious traditions into black Protestant, Catholic, evangelical Protestant, Jewish, mainline Protestant, no religion, and "other" religion.  The "other" category functions as a catch-all to reduce missing cases in multivariate analyses with listwise deletion, but should not be substantively interpreted, as it contains a mixture of Eastern religious traditions, Mormons, and everything in between.  The classification scheme is created by using variables such as affiliation and denomination to classify respondents. View related items in the Measurement Wizard:
Contributors:
Views toward certain religious predictions about the end of the world, such as Armageddon and the Rapture. View related items in the Measurement Wizard:
    Examples  
Several files in the ARDA's Data Archive have examples of this Measure.
BELIEF11 - 1996 God and Society in North America
ENDWORLD - 1996 American Jewish Committee Religious Right Survey Q26H - 2005 Baylor Religion Survey Q26I - 2005 Baylor Religion Survey Rapture - Spirit and Power:  A 10 Country Study of Pentecostals F_QN36 - Changing Faiths: Latinos and the Transformation of American Religion Search the ARDA for similar measures.
Contributors:
These variables can be used to explore whether or not respondents believe in a literal creation story or if creation should be taught in schools and whether they accept versions of evolutionary theory presented by contemporary science. View related items in the Measurement Wizard:     Examples  
Several files in theARDA's Data Archive have examples of this Measure.
EVOLVED - 2008 General Social Survey Humans - 2005 Religion and Public Life Survey Creation - 2005 Religion and Public Life Survey GODUSEEV - 2007-2008 National Survey of Youth and Religion (similar measures available in previous waves) Q10C - U.S. Religious Landscape Survey SCHEVOL - Religion and Public Life Survey (related questions available in same survey) CREATION - 1986 Tulsa, Oklahoma Area Survey Search the ARDA for similar measures.
Contributors:
This assesses whether or not a respondent believes in Hell or Purgatory. View related items in the Measurement Wizard:
    Examples  
Several files in the ARDA's Data Archive have examples of this Measure.
HELL - Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals HELL5 - 1995 Project Canada BELHELL - 1998 International Social Survey Program: Religion II HELL 1994 Catholics in Indiana: A Social and Religious Profile HELL - 2008 General Social Survey (similar measures available in previous waves) Q26D and Q26E - 2005 Baylor Religion Survey SOUL3 - 1996 Religion and Politics Survey BELHELL - Comparative Values Survey of Islamic Countries BLVHELL_3 - World Values Survey, Aggregate Data Q36 - U.S. Religious Landscape Survey Search the ARDA for similar measures.
Contributors:
This assesses what respondents believe about the divinity (or lack thereof) regarding Jesus. View related items in the Measurement Wizard:
    Examples  
Several files in the ARDA's Data Archive have examples of this Measure.
BELIEF3 - 1996 God and Society in North America
BELIEF4 - 1996 God and Society in North America CROSS - 1997 ABC News Religion Poll SONGOD - 1997 ABC News Religion Poll, 1997 ROSEDEAD - 1997 ABC News Religion Poll ONLYWAY - Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals RETURN - Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals Q24 - 2005 Baylor Religion Survey GODRVEAL - 2000Religion and Politics Survey BELRESUR - 2005 Gallup Poll of Catholics RA_5A - Panel Study of American Religion and Ethnicity JESUSCHR - 2005 National Study of Youth and Religion Search the ARDA for similar measures.
Contributors:
These questions measure how literally respondents read the Bible or other sacred scriptures.  It is debatable whether this measure taps more of a belief or an identity.  Although certainly some of both, the latter seems to be more important, as "literalists" from different interpretive communities may disagree on which parts of the Bible are to be taken literally. What is clear is that this question taps a dimension of religion important for understanding other aspects of religiosity, political attitudes, and views about moral authority more generally.  Accordingly this measure has become a standard control, along with service attendance and religious tradition.  It is also used as an indicator of fundamentalism.  Although some believers claim that belief in Biblical "inerrancy" is different, this too is typically taken to mean "literalism." Measures typically include three or four response options.  Researchers sometimes employ these as ordinal categories, while others utilize them as nominal categories. View related items in the Measurement Wizard:
Contributors:
This divides affiliation within Protestantism into differing religious organizations.  This is a standard question available in a wide range of data sets. View related items in the Measurement Wizard:     Examples  
Several files in the ARDA's Data Archive have examples of this measure.
DENOM - 2008 General Social Survey (similar measures available in other waves)
VCF0129 - National Election Studies (cumulative data file 1948-2004)
Q1 - 2005 Baylor Religion Survey
DENOM - U.S. Religious Landscape Survey
Search the ARDA for similar measures.
Contributors:
This measure approximates the extent to which respondents' religious beliefs about salvation are inclusive or exclusive of those unlike them. View related items in the Measurement Wizard:
    Examples  
Several files in the ARDA's Data Archive have examples of this Measure.
Q25 - 2005 Baylor Religion Survey
Saved - 2004 America's Evangelicals Survey
OnlyHope - 2000 Lilly Survey of Attitudes and Social Networks
Search the ARDA for similar measures.
Contributors:
This measures how religious a respondent considers him/herself to be. View related items in the Measurement Wizard:

View related items in Measurement Wizard Scales:

    Examples  
Several files in theARDA's Data Archive have examples of this Measure.
RelPersn - 2008 General Social Survey
ReligPer - Comparative Study of Islamic Values
Search the ARDA for similar measures.
Related Theories To This Concept

Browse the additional theories below:

Contributors
QuickSearch The Knowledge-Base

To search the knowledge-base, enter a term below:

Select a Theory below to learn more:

Select a Concept below to learn more: