About The ARDA | Tools | FAQs | Contact Us

The view that God directly created humans and other living creatures, in opposition to the theory of evolution by natural selection from random variation.

This is often measured by a single item about the theory of evolution, coupled with the religiousness of the respondent, but ideally would be measured by a battery of items containing subscales measuring different components of the concept.  There are varying degrees of “creationism,” ranging from theistic evolution to young Earth creationism (see Scott 1997, 2009).  In recent years efforts have been made to “scienticize” creationism with the rhetoric of Intelligent Design.


Numbers, Ronald L.  2006.  The Creationists: From Scientific Creationism to Intelligent Design, expanded edition.  Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Scott, Eugenie.  1997.  “Antievolution and Creationism in the United States.”  Annual Review of Anthropology 26: 263-289. 

Scott, Eugenie.  2009.  Evolution vs. Creationism: An Introduction, 2nd edition. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. 

The following are possible measures of Creationism that can be created using data from theARDA.com
These variables can be used to explore whether or not respondents believe in a literal creation story or if creation should be taught in schools and whether they accept versions of evolutionary theory presented by contemporary science. View related items in the Measurement Wizard:     Examples  
Several files in theARDA's Data Archive have examples of this Measure.
EVOLVED - 2008 General Social Survey Humans - 2005 Religion and Public Life Survey Creation - 2005 Religion and Public Life Survey GODUSEEV - 2007-2008 National Survey of Youth and Religion (similar measures available in previous waves) Q10C - U.S. Religious Landscape Survey SCHEVOL - Religion and Public Life Survey (related questions available in same survey) CREATION - 1986 Tulsa, Oklahoma Area Survey Search the ARDA for similar measures.
Related Theories To This Concept

Browse the additional theories below:

QuickSearch The Knowledge-Base

To search the knowledge-base, enter a term below:

Select a Theory below to learn more:

Select a Concept below to learn more: